"WOMEN MAKE NEWS & HISTORY EVERY DAY DATABASE": JUNE
Beverly's unique Database is the first-of-its-kind to honor women in history up to making history today. She presents little-known facts about popular personalities, as well as the many unsung heroines not found in traditional histories or reported in the media today.
* Photo from "A Woman's Book of Days" by Beverly Wettenstein
When did the U.S. Equal Pay Act become law? See June 1.
British Equal Pay Act? See June 7.
Why was suffragist Susan B. Anthony, 52, arrested in 1872? See June 6.
Who is the oldest female Academy Award winner? See June 7.
Who was the first female awarded the Nobel Peace Prize? See June 9.
Who was the first African-American actress to win Academy Award? See June 10.
When did Little League admit girls? See June 12.
Who is the most-winning coach in NCAA basketball history? See June 14.
Who created the Toll House Cookie? See June 17.
Why was Susan B. Anthony fined $100 in 1872? See June 18.
When did the Supreme Court rule private clubs should admit women. See June 20.
Why was 1992 labeled the “Year of the Women?” See June 22.
Who has the most Academy Award nominations? See June 22.
What is Title IX? See June 23.
Who was the first movie star to sign million dollar contract? See June 24
Who was the greatest female athlete in the first half of the twentieth century? See June 26.
When did the National Institutes of Health begin to include women in clinical trials? See June 24.
Why are the theater excellence awards called the “Tonys?” See June 28.
Who was the first African-Amerian female to sign long-term Hollywood contract? See June 30.
1910 Sonora Smart Dodd launched Father's Day to honor her widowed father who raised six children. First Father's Day observed on third Sunday in June, in Spokane, Wash.
1926 Marilyn Monroe born. She was the first Playboy cover model and centerfold.Hugh Hefner purchased the crypt next to Monroe's cemetery plot. She is among the top-earning dead celebrities.
1964 U.S. Equal Pay Act became law.
1993 Connie Chung became the second woman to co-anchor the evening news (CBS), 17 years after Barbara Walters became the first in 1976 (ABC). Katie Couric became the first female solo anchor of a weekday network evening news broadcast (September 5, 2005).
1731 Martha Washington born. First First Lady (1789-1797). First American female honored on U.S. stamp. Martha and George Washington are buried at their home, Mt. Vernon.
1861 Helen "Nellie" Taft born. First Lady (1909-1913). Organized Cherry blossom tree planting in D.C. She brought classical musicians to the White House. She is the first First Lady to be buried at Arlington Cemetery. (Jacqueline Kennedy is the only other First Lady buried there).
1886 President Grover Cleveland, 49, wed Frances Folsom, 21. Only First Couple to marry in the White House. "Obey" was omitted from their vows. The Marine Band led the wedding march. They had five children. She was instrumental in the founding of Douglass College, the women's college of Rutgers, in New Jersey.
1953 Queen Elizabeth II's coronation at Westminster Abbey.
1906 Josephine Baker born. First African-American female star in major film and first international entertainer. Civil rights activist refused to perform in segregated clubs.
1970 Washington Post staff memo urged reporters to use gender-sensitive language when writing about women.
1972 Sally J. Priesand, 26, was ordained as the first female rabbi in U.S. and the first to be ordained by a rabbinical seminary, the Hebrew Union College. She became assistant and associate rabbi at the StephenWise Free Synagogue in New York City.
1917 Julia Ward Howe's daughters awarded first Pulitzer for Biography.
1928 TV sex expert "Dr. Ruth" Westheimer born.
1919 Congress approved 19th Amendment guaranteeing women's suffrage and sent to states for ratification.
1989 Wendy Wasserstein was the first female playwright to win Tony Award for Best Play for "The Heidi Chronicles." She also earned Pulitzer Prize for Drama.
1915 Denmark granted women's suffrage.
1920 Congress established the Women's Bureau within the Dept. of Labor.
1973 Doris A. Davis was elected first African-American female mayor of major U.S. city, in Compton, Cal.
1993 Julie Krone, 29, became the first female to win a Triple Crown at Belmont.
1872 Susan B. Anthony, 52, was arrested, tried and fined $100. for leading a group of 16 other women to register and vote in Rochester, NY. She refused to pay and was allowed to go free. On her death, at 86, in 1906, only four states, in the West, allowed women to vote. One hundred years after her birth, all women finally could vote in U.S.
1939 Marian Wright Edelman born. Founder and president of Children's Defense Fund (1973). First African-American female admitted to Mississippi state bar. Graduated Spelman College and Yale Law School (1963). First female elected a member of the Yale University Corporation elected by alumni (1971). MacArthur "Genius" Award (1985). Presidential Medal of Freedom (2000). Library named in her honor in hometown of Bennettsville, South Carolina.
1909 Dr. Virginia Apgar born. Her "Apgar Score," developed in 1952, became the standard for evaluating newborns' health within one minute of birth. First female full professor on Columbia University Medical faculty (1949).
1909 Jessica Tandy born. At 80, oldest Academy Award for Best Actress, "Driving Miss Daisy" (1989).
1917 Gwendolyn Brooks born. First African-American person to win Pulitzer Prize, for Poetry (1950). National Book Award for Lifetime achievement (1994). Poet Laureate of Illinois and to Library of Congress (1985). Schools and library named for her in home state, Illinois.
1968 Female sewing machinists who made car seat covers at the Ford Motor Co. Dagenham plant in London went on strike. Their jobs were downgraded and they were paid less than men. Barbara Castle, Secretary of State For Employment and Productivity, intervened and the strike ended three weeks later. The next year the pay was equal. Influenced passage of the Equal Pay Act of 1970, enforced in 1975. "Made in Dagenham" film (2010).
1971 Singer-songwriter Carole King released "Tapestry." Her hit breakthrough second solo album sold more than 10.5 million copies. King was the first female writer/artist to win all three of the key Grammy Awards -- record, song and album of the year -- as well as the best female vocalist honors. With more than 25 million units sold, "Tapestry" remained the best-selling album by a female artist for a quarter century. She was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame (1987) and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (1990). King is the first female recipient of the Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song (2013). "Beautiful - The Carole King Musical" tells the inspiring true story of the Grammy winner's life and rise to stardom and features her "Beautiful" hit songs. The show is currently playing at the Sondheim Theater in New York City. http://beautifulonbroadway.com)
King and James Taylor's performance at the Troubadour nightclub, where she first emerged, will air on Friday, June 5, at 9:00 PM, on PBS.
1991 General Federation of Women's Clubs celebrated centennial convention; world's largest and oldest women's volunteer service organization. Further information: www.gfwc.org.
1903 Marguerite Youcenor born. First female elected to Academie Francaise.
1925 Barbara Bush born. First Lady (1989-1993). Mother of 43rd president.
1933 Joan Rivers born. Read more on YOU’VE GOT FE(MAIL)! post below. Rivers Honored in Grammy Museum Exhibit.
1843 Pacifist Baroness Bertha Kinsky von Suttner born. First female awarded Nobel Peace Prize (1905).
1983 British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher elected to second term.
1835 Rebecca Felton born. First female to serve in U.S. Senate (for one day, November 21, 1922).
1898 Hattie McDaniel born. First African-American nominee and winner of Academy Award “Best Supporting Actress” for Mammy in “Gone With The Wind” (1940). African-American actors were barred from the premiere in Atlanta and the souvenir program. She had to sit at segregated table during the Awards ceremony. First African-American winner honored on U.S. postage stamp.
1922 Judy Garland born.
1922 Rose Mofford born. First female governor in Arizona (1988-1991). First female class president in her high school; All-American softball player and class of 1939 valedictorian.
1963 U.S. Equal Pay Act of 1963 signed into law.
1981 Supreme Court ruled on wage discrimination that females may sue for equal pay, even is their work is not identical with that of male employees.
1982 Tara Lipinski became the youngest female to win Olympic gold in ice figure skating.
1880 Jeannette Rankin born. First female elected to Congress, from Montana (1917-1919). She was the only female to vote in favor of the Constitutional Amendment granting women unconditional voting rights. Re-elected (1941-1943).
1962 Vivian Malone was the first African-American female to enroll at the University of Alabama, as a junior. First African American graduate (1963).
1970 First females reached rank of Brigadier General in U.S. military: Anna Mae Hays and Elizabeth P. Holsington.
1987 British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher elected to third successive term . First female prime minister in Europe (1979).
1899 Annie Albers had the first textile art show at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) (1949).
1906 First graduating class, Simmons College for women in Boston.
1929 Anne Frank born. On her 13th birthday, she received a diary. "The Diary of a Young Girl" was written during her two years of hiding from the Nazis. She died at 15 in German concentration camp. Her father, the only family survivor, published her diary in 1947.
1930 Barbara Harris born. First female ordained bishop of Episcopalian Church.
1974 Little League abolished boys-only policy following sex-discrimination suits in15 states.
1997 Mary Robertson, president of Ireland since 1990, appointed UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
1875 “Ma” Ferguson born. First female governor of Texas (1925-1927).
1937 Eleanor Holmes Norton born. Elected to 13th term as Congresswoman for the D.C.A graduate of Yale Law School, as head of the NYC Human Rights Commission, she oversaw the first sex discrimination hearings in the U.S. (1970). In 1970, she represented 60 Newsweek employees who filed an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) suit because females were restricted from reporting and editorial positions and won. She was the first female chair of the EEOC (1977).
1993 Tansu Giller, 47, became the first female prime minister of Turkey.
1811 Harriet Beecher Stowe born. When the author of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”met PresidentAbraham Lincoln, he said, “So you’re the little women who wrote book that made this great war.”
1903 Margaret Bourke-White born. Photojournalist was the first accredited war photographer;first cover of Life magazine.
1952 Pat Summitt born. Basketball coach, University of Tennessee. Lady Vols. Most all-time wins for NCAA basketball coach (1974-2012). Prior to Title IX, no athletic scholarships for women. Sports Illustrated Sportswoman of the Year, December 6, 2011. Lady Vols student-athletes had 100 percent graduation rate. Presidential Medal of Freedom (2012).
1969 Steffi Graf born. Tennis Grand Slam winner (1988).
1993 Ruth Bader Ginsburg nominated to be second female on U.S. Supreme Court. See March 15 on my Website.
1921 Bessie Coleman became the first African-American female to earn pilot’s licence in world.
1978 Lisa Halaby wed King Hussein of Jordan and became Queen Noor.
1738 Mary Katherine Goddard born. First postmistress printed Declaration of Independence (1777).
1902 Barbara McClintock born. Geneticist was 48 when she published pre-DNA findings (1951). Awarded Nobel Prize at 81 (1983).
1917 Katharine Graham born. Publisher, chair, CEO, Washington Post Co.,Newsweek (1969-1991). First female, Associated Press board (1974). First female CEO of Fortune 500 company (1972).
1938 Joyce Carol Oates born. National Book Award. National Humanities Medal.
1903 Ruth Wakefield born. Dietician created Toll House chocolate chip cookie. She and husband owned the Toll House Inn, in Massachusetts. She substituted baker’s chocolate with Nestle’s semi-sweet chocolate bits and invented chocolate chip cookies. She gave Nestle the right to print the Toll House cookie recipe on the package for $1.00 and a lifetime supply of Nestle chocolate.
1963 Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshova, 26, became the first female in space.
1970 McSorley’s century-old men-only saloon in NYC was ordered by federal court to admit women. The bathroom became unisex until a ladies’ room was installed 16 years later. Mory’s, Yale’s famous all-male bar, opened to women after lawsuit in 1974. Yale became coeducational and admitted 250 freshman women plus 250 upperclass women by transfer in September 1969.
1971 Jeanne M Holm became first female brigadier general in U.S. Air Force. Promoted to major general (1973).
1873 Susan B. Anthony convicted of voting illegally in presidential election in 1872. She refused to pay $100. fine.
1983 Dr. Sally Ride, 32, became the first American female in space on Space Shuttle Challenger mission. All female astronauts were required to have Ph.D. in Physics. Two elementary schools are named for her.
1945 Aung San Suu Kyi born. Burmese rights activist awarded Nobel Peace Prize. She was under house arrest and her sons accepted on her behalf (1991). House arrest (1989-1995).
1986 Supreme Court ruled sexual harassment was discrimination.
1986 The New York Times began using “Ms.” as an honorific in its news columns.
1837 Queen Victoria succeeded to British throne. Served 63+ years.
1988 Supreme Court unanimously upheld law enforcing the admission of women to private clubs with more than 400 members. The
Cosmos Club in Washington, D.C. voted to abandon it’s century-old all-male policy. The year before, Kiwanis changed its rules to admit women. In1984, a Minnesota statute required Jaycees to accept women.
1908 More than 20,000 suffragists demonstrated in London.
1931 Margaret Heckler born. She was the only female in her Boston College Law Class of 1956. Served eight terms in House of Representatives (1967-1983). Co-chaired initial bi-partisan Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues. Co-sponsored Equal Rights Amendment. Secretary of Health and Human Services (1983-1985). Ambassador to Ireland (1985).
1953 Benazir Bhutto born. First female elected prime minister of Pakistan (1988). Elected to second term (1993). Assassinated in 2007.
1997 Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) launched inaugural season.
1910 Katherine Dunham born. Founded first professional African-American dance troupe. Kennedy Center Honors (1983).
1933 Sen Dianne Feinstein born. Former San Francisco mayor was elected in 1992, along with Barbara Boxer. First time a state elected two female senators. "The Year of the Women" was identified with the 1992 election. It was a banner year with record numbers of women running and winning 11 Senate seats and 108 in the House. Feinstein was the first female to chair the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Advocated for Breast Cancer Research postage stamp which has raised more than $65 million.
1949 Meryl Streep born. Three-time Academy Award winner has 19 nominations, the most of any actor. Graduated from Vassar and MFA from Yale School of Drama.
1940 Wilma Rudolph born. First female to win three gold medals in track and field in a single Olympics (1960).
1972 Title IX of the Higher Education Act Amendments banned sex bias in federally funded education programs in athletics and other activities. According to the Women’s Sports Foundation (WSF), Title IX, which ensures equal access in federally-funded educational programs, including sports, was enacted in 1972, when just one in 27 girls participated in high school varsity sports. As a result of Title IX and the work of WSF, that number has increased to about two in five today. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) reports that in women’s collegiate programs, the increase is nearly 600 percent. Females still have 1.3 million fewer high school and more than 63,000 fewer college sports participation opportunities than males. (www.womenssportsfoundation.org)
1916 Mary Pickford signed the first million dollar movie contract months before Charlie Chaplin. Co-founded independent film studio United Artists (1919) and co-founded the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. First actor to have her name in marquee lights.
1991 Dr. Bernadine Healy, a cardiologist, became the first female director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). She launched ten-year, $625 million Women’s Health Initiatives and mandated policy funding clinical trials include both women and men.
1892 Aileen Osborn Webb born. In 1956, she founded the Museum of Contemporary Crafts, now known as the Museum of Arts and Design (MAD), in New York City, the first museum recognizing the craftsmanship of contemporary American artists.
1903 Mme. Marie Curie announced her discovery of radium. She was the first female to receive the Nobel Prize in Physics, with her husband, for their work on radioactivity (1903). After his sudden traffic death, she took over his position and became the first female professor at the Sorbonne. She isolated radium in its pure state and received second Nobel Prize, in Chemistry (1911). She purposely did not benefit financially and chose not to patent the radium isolation process, to benefit future scientific research. In 1920, the predecessor organization of the American Association of University Women (AAUW), helped raise $100,000. for Curie to purchase a gram of radium to continue her research. In 1934, Curie died from the prolonged effects of exposure to radiation. In
1995, the remains of Curie and her husband were interred in the Pantheon in Paris. She is the first and only female selected for France’s final honor.
1947 “The Diary of Anne Frank” was published.
1954 Sonia Sotomayor born. First Hispanic and third female U.S. Supreme Court justice. Raised by widowed mother in Bronx housing project. She graduated from Princeton summa cum laude, with Phi Beta Kappa honors. At Yale Law School, she was editor of the Law Review (1979). See March Database: The Supremes’ Selfie.
1993 Tansu Ciller became the first female prime minister of Turkey. In 1990, she was elected one of eight women to the 450-member legislature.
1993 Kim Campbell was sworn in as Canada’s first female prime minister.
1844 Julia Gardner wed President John Tyler. First Lady (1844-1845). She met the widowed president at a White House dinner. He proposed two weeks later. They wed in private ceremony. He was 54; she was 24.
1892 Pearl S. Buck born. Nobel Prize for Literature (1938). Pulitzer Prize for “The Good Earth” (1932).
1902 Antonia Brico born. She became the first female to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic (1930) and the New York Philharmonic (1938). Brico founded her own ensemble, the Women’s Symphony Orchestra, when she could not obtain a conducting post with the established orchestras. Judy Collins, one of her students in the 1950s, directed the 1974 film “Antonia: Portrait of a Conductor.” She campaigned to fight prejudice against females in the orchestral world. On May 21, 2015, Finnish conductor Susanna Malkki, 46, made her New York Philharmonic debut. She will be the next Chief Conductor of the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra in 2016.
1911 Babe Didrickson Zaharias born. Named the “greatest” female athlete of the first half of the 20th century.. Pro golfer co-founded LPGA (1949).
1996 U.S. Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional for Virginia Military Institute ( VMI), a school supported by public funds, to exclude women. In August 1997, the first co-ed class with 30 females matriculated in the class of 2001.
1859 Mildred Hill born. Composed the “Happy Birthday” melody, the world’s most popular song, with her sister, Patty Smith. The Smith sisters were posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame (June 12, 1996). Warner/Chappell purchased the
song’s copyright for $15 million in 1988 until 2030.
1888 Antoinette Perry born. She co-founded the American Theater Wing (1947) and served as its first board chair and secretary. Perry was the first successful independent female producer and director. The annual “Tony” Awards for excellence in theater, named for her, air live June 7 from Radio City Music Hall.
1893 Crystal Bird Fauset born. First African-American female elected to a U.S. state legislature, the Pennsylvania House of Representative, representing Philadelphia district (1938).
1924 Rosalie Allen born. First female inducted into the Country Music Disc Jockey Hall of Fame (1999).
1867 Grace Rainey Rogers born. Art collector and philanthropist served on the Metropolitan Museum board. The Met’s Auditorium is named in her honor.
1876 Clara Maass born. Army nurse was the only female and American to die of yellow fever, at 25. She volunteered twice for Mag. Walter Reed’s immunization experiment in Cuba. Cuba and U.S. Postal Service honored her on stamp.
1906 Maria Goeppert-Mayer born. Second female after Marie Curie (see June 25) awarded Nobel Prize in Physics (1963).
1949 The first 12 women admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945, due to men’s WW II enlistments, graduated.
1976 First 157 females entered the U.S. Air Force Academy.
1996 The Citadel, the state-supported Military College of South Carolina, voted to admit the first females in its 153-year history, in order to continue to accept public funding. In the graduating class of 2012, the top two graduates were women.
1876 Nellie Tayloe Ross born. First U.S. elected female governor, in Wyoming (1925-1927). Director of U.S. Mint (1933-1953).
1966 National Organization for Women (NOW) founded.
1974 Isabel Peron became the first female president of Argentina (1974-1976).
1903 Glenna Collett Vare was the first U.S.Women’s Golf Champion (1922). The LPGA’s Vare Trophy for the lowest scoring average
is named in her honor.
1917 Lena Horne born. First African-American female to sign long-term Hollywood contract (1942). She fought for contracts guaranteeing that African-Americans could attend her shows in the 1940s and 1950s.
1980 Vigdis Finnbogadottir, 50, was elected the first female president in Iceland (and Europe (1980-1996).
1992 Margaret Thatcher took seat in British House of Lords after service as prime minister.
* Credit Source: Beverly Wettenstein's "Women Make History Every Day Database"